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Do Counterexamples on the Kāraka Rules A. 1.4.33–36 in the Kāśikāvr̥tti Serve Any Purpose?

Tanuja Ajotikar    The Sanskrit Library, Providence, RI    



Ajotikar et al. (2016) claim that most of the counterexamples provided in the Kāśikāvr̥tti conform to the distinctive feature of a counterexample, namely, having all the conditions stated in the rule except one (ekāṅgavikalatā). Ajotikar (2021) discusses how a variant reading for a counterexample helps understand the relation between two operational rules. This article adds one more aspect to the importance of counterexamples. However, there are some cases where the purpose of the counterexample of a complex semantic condition is not clear. In this article, I study counterexamples provided on the sūtras, A. 1.4.33-36, in the kāraka section, on which Patañjali did not comment. These sūtras are chosen for discussion because the counterexamples available on these sūtras are first provided in the Kāśikāvr̥tti. When it comes to the issue of complex semantic conditions (priyamāṇa, jñīpsyamāna, īpsita or uttamarṇa) stated in A. 1.4.33-36, it is difficult to justify the usefulness of the available counterexamples. After carefully examining Bhatr̥hari’s views along with Helārāja’s explanation, it is evident that these counterexamples must have been included in order to fulfil the criteria of a vr̥tti. A vr̥tti typically includes an example, a counterexample and a supplementary word, which are necessary to complete the meaning of the rule. However, these counterexamples fail to justify the significance of the semantic conditions stated in the rule for which they are provided. Hence they do not serve any purpose.

06 Dicembre 2023
23 Settembre 2023
03 Luglio 2023

Keywords: Kāśikāvr̥tti counterexamples Kāraka sūtras Bhatr̥hPāṇini non-Pāṇinian grammarsKāśikāvr̥tti counterexamplesBhatr̥hariKāraka sūtras

Copyright: © 2023 Tanuja Ajotikar. This is an open-access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction is permitted, provided that the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The license allows for commercial use. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.