The Shape of Certification to Come
This final chapter offers a reflection on possible future directions for English language certification. The major problem to solve (or to attempt to solve) seems to be not so much what to assess (fifteen years of ELF research have offered lots of insights into this) as how to do it. After discussing a series of problems related to rater rubrics, and the notion of error, we consider the format that future ‘ELF’ aware certification may take, concurring with Harding and MacNamara that an add-on ELF component currently seems the most practical way of incorporating an ELF element into mainstream certification. We conclude that the development of ELF certification is likely to be slow and painstaking, it may combine local and global elements, but in the long term it is inevitable, since the demand for valid and reliable certification of competences in the use of the world’s lingua franca is destined to grow, perhaps for many more years.