Il pontificato di Pio XI e la violenza politica
Legittimazioni, delegittimazioni, circolazioni
These final considerations point out several key aspects that should be taken into account when studying Pius XI’s pontificate. With regard to methodology, doctrinal stances, political and diplomatic actions must not be analysed separately. Besides, the Catholic Church should be also evaluated as a transnational actor. One of the main topics, which crosses the entire period like a fil rouge, is the theme of ‘violence’. The legitimacy or de-legitimacy of violence by the Holy See could represent a new historiographical subject through which rereading the 20th century pontificates.