A Greek defixio from Morgantina
The inscription, dated to the I century BC, comes from a votive pit in the sanctuary of the chthonic deities of Morgantina (Sicily), where it was discovered with other nine similar documents in 1962, during the excavations conducted by Princeton University. Scratched on a thin sheet of lead once rolled up, the inscriptions is likely a curse against the slave Venusta, who is also addressed to in other similar documents. Since the text avoids the use of strong and violent expressions common to many defixiones, some scholars have suggested that it could rather be a positive invocation aimed at facilitating the entry of the deceased in the afterlife. However, the archaeological context, as well as the comparison with a recently found inscription, prompts to confirm the malevolent nature of the spell.