3 • The Celestial Novelties
The celestial novelties of the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries radically changed the cosmological debate. In the last edition of his Commentarius in sphaeram Ioannis de Sacrobosco, published in 1611, Clavius urged astronomers to work out an astronomical solution that integrated the ground-breaking Galilean novelties of 1610. This chapter analyses the telescope observations carried out by the Lisbon Jesuit astronomers in Rome, Ingolstadt, Lisbon, and Vietnam. It shows that they were utterly familiar with the celestial novelties that deeply challenged the traditional worldview at the turn of the seventeenth century.