Il fallimento della holding (società di fatto) per insolvenza da responsabilità risarcitoria ex art. 2497 c.c.
Italian courts use various techniques to address misuse of corporate assets, systematic syphoning and extreme opportunistic behaviour by controlling shareholders. In this case, the Court decides that the controlling shareholder and shadow director, his wife and the daughter of the couple, formed a holding partnership. It then uses a new rule on controlling shareholders’ liability for wrongful control (article 2497 of the Civil Code) to impose liability on this partnership. Finally, it finds that the partnership is insolvent because of the burden of the debt for damages under article 2497 and hence declares the partnership’s bankruptcy. This note addresses the issues arising from this line of reasoning and the dangers of a doctrine which basically transforms liability for damages under article 2497 into a short way to bankruptcy. More specifically, the note examines the conditions which must be met so that the controlling entity can be qualified as an“entrepreneur” under the Italian bankruptcy code and the problem of how to assess damages for wrongful control under article 2497, along with various other miscellaneous issues.