Rio de Janeiro is suffering from increasing environmental damage. Urban social movements in the city, however, seem not to be considering this issue at the same level as other issues. The absence of a manifest environmental consciousness by urban social movements in Rio de Janero is striking, particularly from a social ecology point of view. It would seem crucial for them to consider and take action to protect the environment, not only because of the local negative environmental issues, but also for the broad climate change effects connected with them. It seems that urban social movements in Rio de Janeiro follow a pattern in which only when a basic standard of living is ensured and minimal working rights are guaranteed, can they start claiming other rights and concentrate on environmental problems. This work suggests that the holistic approach of social ecology can help urban social movements to have a more understanding of the social and ecological impacts of various projects and solve the dichotomy Brown vs Green agenda.
Urban social movement. Rio de Janeiro. Green agenda. Brown agenda. Social ecology.