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The aim of the volume is to analyze the ‘practical implementation’ of the anti-modernist measures of Pius X’s encyclical Pascendi (September 8, 1907) in the Roman Catholic Church. For the first time, the reports on Modernism produced by bishops and religious orders – and scattered in the Roman archives – are studied and compared, offering the reader an international picture of the widespread effect of anti-modernism until 1914 and, at least indirectly, of the general situation of the Catholic Church at the beginning of the twentieth century. At the same time, the various local interpretations and strategies come into focus, as well as the somewhat competition-driven inner-curial handling of the reports.
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